Aaron in Azerbaijan

Just another blog about Azerbaijan.

Archive for the ‘Religion’ Category

Where Does Azerbaijan Belong?

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The CRRC has a new report out detailing gender attitude differences in the Caucasus and comparing those attitudes to the wider set of data from the Pew Center’s Global Attitudes Project. What you get is a picture that lifts up the differences in Caucasus countries in contrast to Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. The takeaway:

Armenia and Azerbaijan tend to emphasize more traditional gender roles, and in global terms are often closer in attitude to Middle Eastern and Asian countries. Georgia, meanwhile, is more inclined to aspire to gender equality, and in this sense is closer to countries in Western Europe and the Americas. However, the picture is complicated and, using other data from the Caucasus Barometer, the report shows that gender perceptions in the South Caucasus are deeply nuanced, and do not fit into a conventional picture of equality versus tradition.

The report (pdf) is a quick and informative read. What I’m interested in here, though, is what is not in this report. One of the glaring absences in the Pew report is data from Central Asia. For obvious reasons, countries like Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan are rather inaccessible. And from what I can tell, it looks like Uzbekistan last participated in the Global Attitudes Survey in 2002. Not exactly a recipe for a reliable data set from Central Asia. Kyrgystan and Tajikistan aren’t represent at all, nor are Iran and Afghanistan. Without the work of the CRRC, we wouldn’t have comparable information for Georgia, Armenia, or Azerbaijan, either.

I’m willing to posit, though, that if we had that information, we would see vast similarities between Azerbaijan and the Central Asian countries. I’d even go so far as to say that in addition to the geographical grouping we give Azerbaijan, with the other Caucasus countries, it’d be appropriate to say that Azerbaijan fits right in in Central Asia. Websites such as NewEurasia, a recent find that I’m really enjoying, leave their reporting to only the countries on the other side of the Caspian (not sure if that’s just because they don’t have an Azerbaijan source or not). It’s fairly obvious why I think that Azerbaijan shares so much with those countries: Muslim populations, former Soviet states, natural resource wealth, strong Russian leadership legacies, and more. If you’ve read Chasing the Sea, an account from a former PCV in Uzbekistan, the similarities, all the way from food and clothing choices to government apparatuses, are striking. Reading Hooman Majd’s The Ayatollah Begs to Differ offers more similarities that can extend throughout countries of the former Persian Empire, which would includes a significant chunk of the Middle East and Central Asia, as well as the Caucasus. The influences from the Russians, Iranians, and the myriad of other conquerors of the region have left impressions that mark the entire region.

This post doesn’t really have a larger point to make. What I’m trying to say is that I think it’s completely legitimate to include Azerbaijan in the region of “Central Asia”, even though it’s geographically separated from the typical list of countries because it’s on the wrong side of the Caspian. Whether it’s a fruitful comparison to make, I’m not sure, but I’d be interested in seeing information like that gleaned from the CRRC and the Pew surveys produced to compare the typical Central Asian countries and Azerbaijan.


Written by Aaron

October 19, 2011 at 5:54 am

Why Peace Corps is Important: 9/11 and the Third Goal, Ctd.

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Before we move on from the topic, this is just an addendum to my thoughts on how Peace Corps can help heal from days like 9/11 as we slide past the 10th anniversary of the tragedy. Today was my first day back at the bank after the anniversary. While I am cognizant of the tragedy of 9/11 and understanding of the grief it causes for many, I am not so strongly swayed by the memory of that day. However, it was touching today as my colleagues talked about the 9/11 disaster with respect. Multiple expressed to me what a terrible day that was for the world. One even commented that he was surprised when a friend attended a wedding on Sunday, believing that having a celebration on a day of tragedy is inappropriate. A few others expressed how much they dislike Bin Laden and what he and Al Qaeda stand for.

Whether they say these things because I’m there and because I’m American, I can’t know. Yet, it’s still a reminder that there is such a thing as humankind, where we can feel solidarity with one another and understand each other across borders, across oceans, and across cultures. This is an experience I would like for more people to have.

Written by Aaron

September 13, 2011 at 3:03 pm

Why Peace Corps is Important: 9/11 and the Third Goal

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This is not about where I was on September 11, 2001. Instead, this is about where I am now and why that is important relative to September 11, 2001. Peace Corps and the Third Goal were made for days like this.


Peace Corps service is defined by three goals: 1) Provide technical assistance and training for people in the host country; 2) Give people outside of the United States a better understanding of Americans; and 3) Give Americans a better understanding of people from other countries. Goals 1 and 2 are best done while Peace Corps service is going on, the 2+ years a Volunteer is in Peace Corps, working in the country. Goal 3, however, is a mission that starts from Day 1 of Peace Corps service and continues on for the rest of your life. Creating and updating this blog is one of my biggest contributions to date towards pursuing Goal 3. When I leave Azerbaijan, I’ll have to find a new way to do it. Part of pursuing Goal 3 through new ways will be incorporating the message of this post into my life in America.

After living in Azerbaijan for two years, my Peace Corps colleagues and I have the insights and knowledge of this country that very, very few people have. We know the frustrations of travel here. We know that this is a nation with many incredible people and many more people who are struggling. We know that rice is best served with melted butter drizzled over the top of it, alongside a roasted chicken from an earthen oven. Azerbaijanis are as much a part of the global community that strives to improve their lot as Americans or Chinese or Angolans. We know that, right now, their system is working against them.

The Third Goal is about sharing this knowledge and our experiences with people in America. I can’t give anyone the full feeling of living in Azerbaijan. Yet, I can paint that picture with a palette more alive than anyone else’s, with nuance and understanding, with strokes broad and deep. My painting of Azerbaijan will be added to the gallery of cross-cultural understanding that is the collective mind of Americans.


My days with a host family in Lənkəran always started off the same: breakfast of bread and cheese and butter, multiple cups of tea. My host mother usually prepared everything. The day continued with me going to work or reading or wandering around Lənkəran in tandem with Eli, we, the Giants of Lənkəran. All through this period, my host mother performed her prayers three times per day, as is customary for the Islam practiced here in southern Azerbaijan. It was an unassuming task, something you would hardly notice if you weren’t looking for it. Without a Muezzin singing the call to prayer to remind you it’s there, you might stop noticing it exists.

At home with my host brother, the TV would usually be on. Programs from Baku and others streamed in. Within the first two weeks of my living there, a show came on in which the popular and energetic host invited a distinguished scientist to discuss evolution. It was difficult for the scientist to get a good word in on evolution. Much of the discussion turned on religious points and the host derided Darwin.

Ramazan and Qurban Bayramı come and go every year, and so do Məhərrəmlik and Aşura. And Novruz tops all of those holidays. The first time I experienced those holidays was here in this country, walking to various mosques with my host brother, or witnessing the killing of the sheep for Qurban with my first host family, or learning about the meal at the end of the day, Iftar, which marks the end of the fast that day at sundown. Ending a fast with that plate of buttery rice and roasted chicken is a great thing.


In America, since 9/11, we have learned much more about Islam and Muslims throughout the world. However, there is no doubt that misinformation persists, stereotypes have embedded themselves in our collective consciousness, and our society has shaped itself in opposition to people with Muslim backgrounds, of Islamic faith. It is hard to divorce the word Muslim from the word Terrorist, even though it is patently obvious that the association is bogus.

When I return from my Peace Corps service, I don’t just have the opportunity to share about my experience with Azerbaijanis and the post-Soviet sphere, my work with a bank and helping students. I will have an opportunity to tell about the people I met here who are Muslim culturally and religiously and who are great people because of it. I can talk about the people who were curious about my own beliefs, but never saw the differences as an Us vs. Them proposition, seeing us all as part of the same world. These folks talk about disasters in all parts of the world with an equal sense of grief, regardless of place or people or religion. Or they talk with me about NBA basketball and the tragedy of the lockout.

The anniversary of 9/11 is the type of event that makes Peace Corps service that much more meaningful. Our experiences are deep wells waiting to be plumbed, a water that brings words like Muslim and Islam and mosque to life so that we are no longer talking about flat characters from the other side of the world, but instead people who we’ve shared meals with and shared terrible bus rides with and laughter with and, possibly, long electricity-outages with. A 9/11 anniversary is the type of event that allows us to heal the wounds of yesteryear through better understanding of others. It is in this frame that we can best approach the 10th anniversary of 9/11, and in this frame that I can best view the changes in me through my Peace Corps service.

Written by Aaron

September 11, 2011 at 3:54 pm

Ramadan, Coming to You on August 1st

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This is my second year in a Muslim country during Ramadan (Ramazan, in Azeri). And it’s another time that reminds me that Azerbaijan is not necessarily the most devout of Muslim countries. (Let’s chalk that up to 70+ years of Soviet repression, shall we?) When I head to the bank on Tuesday, it’s likely that 40% or so of my bank colleagues will be fasting in accordance to the Sawm. This is what I had to say about Ramazan last year, which I’m sure is still applicable (note, however, that we’re regularly hitting 100+F in temperatures this year):

One of the big concerns we’ve had is that this month has been extremely hot. We’re talking about mid- to high-90′s each day, no rain, all sun, all the time. That’s concerning for folks who are not even drinking water. There have got to be some alternatives that people are pursuing to keep this up. At the bank, I know there have been a few more people complaining of headaches and feeling ill recently, which I’m going to directly attribute to the fasting. Yet, I admire the earnestness with which these people approach the time of Ramadan. It’s an impressive undertaking, no matter how hot it is outside.

This is also another time to discuss the religiosity of Azerbaijanis, their relationship to Islam. We’ve seen other examples of ignoring Islamic principles, such as excessive drinking by Azeri men. Ramadan is no exception. While there are certainly a lot of people fasting during Ramadan, I think it’s fewer than I thought. An informal survey of the bank office showed that about a third of the office was fasting, about 16 out of the 50 or so people that work there. Talking with Miri, it’s about the same at the TV station. Miri’s also a bit more cynical about the whole enterprise. He suggested the other day that while some people fast for religious purposes, there is another subgroup of people who are fasting for more vain purposes, trying to lose weight, or for health. I’m not into criticizing people for fasting for those purposes. But I do find it a little surprising.

This year the month of Ramazan starts officially on August 1, 10 days earlier than last year, according to the Caucasus Muslims Board:

Qadi Council of the Caucasian Muslims Board issued a fatwa on the start of the Month of Ramadan.

An event was held on this occasion at the Caucasian Muslims Board. According to the fatwa, the first day of the Month of Ramadan falls on August 1 of the Christian calendar. July 31 is the night of intention. The Eid ul-Fitr falls on the 29th or 30th of the Month of Ramadan by the hijri calendar – August 30 or 31 by Christian calendar.

One feature that I find particularly interesting about Ramazan is that the myriad important dates during the (lunar) month are fairly vague. Notice above: we’re not sure which day the Eid falls on. Other dates, the days on which the Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet or the days on which Shi’ites commemorate the martyrdom of Imam Ali, are similarly uncertain. It all depends on the sightings of the moon.

Written by Aaron

July 31, 2011 at 6:59 pm

Maccabi Tel Aviv v. Xəzər Lənkəran: Israeli Football Players on Iran’s Doorstep

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Well, I doubt that the players from Maccabi Tel Aviv FC are heading down to the border town of Astara, but Lənkəran isn’t very far away. We sit about a 30 minute drive north of the border, so when Maccabi Tel Aviv players came to Lənkəran, I’m sure they were closer to Iran than they ever thought they might be. I hadn’t even thought of the security implications of tonight’s match until I was sent this news article:

Some 15,000 fans, 400 policemen and 300 soldiers will meet Maccabi Tel Aviv for its return leg tonight against Khazar Lankaran in Azerbaijan, just 40 kilometers from the Iranian border. In a move to prevent Iranian citizens from entering the stadium, every fan will have to present a passport. The 30 Maccabi fans who made the journey in three flights will be given heavy security.

A few things: First, those 30 Maccabi fans aren’t very travel-savvy. They should be able to get to Azerbaijan with only one layover. If they were really savvy, they would realize they could have flown to Moscow or St. Petersburg and been on a flight directly from there to Lənkəran. Second, the article describes later how the Maccabi team complained about the conditions of getting to Lənkəran. Same goes for them: if they were any good at international travel, they should have been able to get a flight into Lənkəran (it’s a football team: shouldn’t they have their own chartered flight?) and skipped the “rickety bus” they talked about. And even if they had taken a bus from the Baku bus station, it would have been air-conditioned. What buses are they talking about? Third, those security measures are interesting. At the last game I went to, there was a very small crowd of fans for the other team that was surrounded by security for the entire game. And it seems that no matter who the opponent is, security at these games is always plentiful, with local military regiments lining up around the pitch and into many of the seating sections.

Last, people around Lənkəran have been talking about this game all week. I’ve been asked tens of times in the last few days if I’ve bought a ticket yet (I haven’t) and I’m sure that the stadium will be packed. For the fans’ sakes, I hope that the game is better than the last one I went to, against a team from Moldova. For this upcoming game, we know that Xəzər Lənkəran, this year’s Azerbaijan League champion, took the loss in the last meeting of these two teams in Israel a few weeks ago. Hopefully Xəzər can take some lessons learned and advantage of the hometown crowd to turn that 3:1 score from the loss into a 3:1 win here in Lənkəran.

Written by Aaron

July 21, 2011 at 7:25 am